Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
Aim Of Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acupressure acupressure
Alternative-medicine practice in which pressure is applied to points on the body aligned along 12 main meridians (pathways), usually for a short time, to improve the flow of vital force (qi). on nausea and vomiting Nausea and Vomiting Definition
Nausea is the sensation of being about to vomit. Vomiting, or emesis, is the expelling of undigested food through the mouth. in pregnant women.
Seventy-five pregnant women who were in their 5th to 20th week of gestation GESTATION, med. jur. The time during which a female, who has conceived, carries the embryo or foetus in her uterus. By the common consent of mankind, the term of gestation is considered to be ten lunar months, or forty weeks, equal to nine calendar months and a week. took part in this study. All of these women had experienced at least one episode of nausea either with or without vomiting in the 24 hours prior to study commencement. None of the women were taking vitamin B vitamin B
1. Vitamin B complex.
2. A member of the vitamin B complex, especially thiamine.
vitamin B, vitamin B complex
a group of water-soluble substances described separately. 6 or medication for nausea and vomiting. None of the women were diagnosed with hyperemesis gravidarum Hyperemesis Gravidarum Definition
Hyperemesis gravidarum means excessive vomiting during pregnancy.
In pregnant women, nausea and vomiting (morning sickness) are common, affecting up to 80% of pregnancies. (a condition characterised by severe and protracted pro·tract
tr.v. pro·tract·ed, pro·tract·ing, pro·tracts
1. To draw out or lengthen in time; prolong: disputants who needlessly protracted the negotiations.
2. vomiting). There were no statistical differences between the women for severity, length and frequency of nausea and vomiting episodes.
The women were randomly divided into three groups: 26 in the treatment group, 25 in the control group and 24 in the placebo group. None of the women were made aware of which group they had been allocated to. All the women in this study were asked to keep a diary of nausea and vomiting episodes for the nine day duration of the intervention.
Those in the treatment group had acupressure wristbands applied to the P6 acupressure point. The wristband was 2.5 cm thick with a cloth covered semi-sphere shaped button that was placed over the P6 point on the inner wrist. The women in this group applied pressure to the P6 point digitally. To ensure the instructions were correctly carried out, written materials explaining the procedure were also provided.
Women in the placebo group wore the same acupressure wristbands as the treatment group, but with the button on the upper wrist in the opposite position to the P6 point. Written instructions were provided to this group as well to ensure that the wristbands were correctly worn. The control group did not wear wristbands.
The study's length was nine days. On days 1-3 no wristbands were worn by any group. During days 4-6 the acupressure bands were used by the treatment and placebo groups. These bands were taken off at night before going to sleep and put back on before getting out of bed in the morning. If the bands needed to be removed at any time over the-day, they had to be replaced within 15 minutes and this had to be recorded in the diary. On days 7-9 the wristbands were not worn at all.
Visual analogue scales (VAS vas (vas) pl. va´ sa [L.] vessel.va´sal
1. a blind tubule sometimes connected with the epididymis; a vestigial mesonephric tubule.
2. ) formed part of the women's daily diary notes. The VAS consisted of a 10 cm horizontal line (Descriptive Geometry & Drawing) a constructive line, either drawn or imagined, which passes through the point of sight, and is the chief line in the projection upon which all verticals are fixed, and upon which all vanishing points are found.
See also: Horizontal with 0 cm representing 'no symptoms' and 10 cm indicating 'worst possible symptoms'.
There was a highly significant reduction in the frequency of nausea symptoms between days 1-3 and days 4-6 in the treatment group. The placebo group also showed a significant reduction in frequency of nausea symptoms in these two time periods. The control group showed no significant difference between days 1-3 and 4-6.
There was a significant reduction in the severity of nausea for both the treatment and the placebo groups between days 1-3 and days 4-6. The control group showed no difference in nausea severity for the same periods.
There was a significant reduction in the intensity of discomfort for both the treatment and the placebo groups between days 1-3 and days 4-6, although the reduction was greater in the treatment group. The control group showed no difference in nausea severity for the same periods. During days 7-9, there were no significant differences between any of the groups for frequency or severity of nausea episodes or for intensity of discomfort.
The researchers concluded that:
acupressure wristbands may have both a therapeutic and a placebo effect on reducing symptoms of nausea and ensuring relief for the patients.
Limitations Of The Study
The researchers noted that women who came to the centre in which the study took place tended to have their regular medical examinations at similar appointment times. Thus the possibility that the women might communicate with each other was created. In an effort to reduce any negative effects that this may cause, the women who were allocated to the same group were given appointments on the same day. _
Gurkan OZ, Arsian H. Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 2008;14:46-52.
COPYRIGHT Australian Traditional-Medicine Society reproduced with permission
Massage vs guided relaxation on wellbeing and stress in older patients
Sharpe, P, Williams, H, Granner M,
Hussey J. A
randomised Adj. 1.
randomised - set up or distributed in a deliberately random way
COPYRIGHT Australian Traditional-Medicine
Society reproduced with permission